Vale S.A. is a Brazilian multinational mining company that specializes in the production of iron ore, nickel, copper, coal, and other minerals. It is one of the largest mining companies in the world and operates in over 30 countries. Vale was founded in 1942 and is headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The company has faced controversy and criticism for its environmental impact and safety record, including a major dam collapse in 2019 that killed over 250 people. Vale has since committed to improving its safety and sustainability practices.